AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate SAA-C03 Exam Questions Part 8B | 2022-2023

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  1. A company is using Amazon Redshift for analytics and to generate customer reports. The company recently acquired 50 TB of additional customer demographic data. The data is stored in .csv files in Amazon S3. The company needs a solution that joins the data and visualizes the results with the least possible cost and effort.
    What should a solutions architect recommend to meet these requirements?

A. Use Amazon Redshift Spectrum to query the data in Amazon S3 directly and join that data with the existing data in Amazon Redshift. Use Amazon QuickSight to build the visualizations.
B. Use Amazon Athena to query the data in Amazon S3. Use Amazon QuickSight to join the data from Athena with the existing data in Amazon Redshift and to build the visualizations.
C. Increase the size of the Amazon Redshift cluster, and load the data from Amazon S3. Use Amazon EMR Notebooks to query the data and build the visualizations in Amazon Redshift.
D. Export the data from the Amazon Redshift cluster into Apache Parquet files in Amazon S3. Use Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES) to query the data. Use Kibana to visualize the results.

  1. A solutions architect must provide a fully managed replacement for an on-premises solution that allows employees and partners to exchange files. The solution must be easily accessible to employees connecting from on-premises systems, remote employees, and external partners. Which solution meets these requirements?

A. Use AWS Transfer for SFTP to transfer files into and out of Amazon S3.
B. Use AWS Snowball Edge for local storage and large-scale data transfers.
C. Use Amazon FSx to store and transfer files to make them available remotely.
D. Use AWS Storage Gateway to create a volume gateway to store and transfer files to Amazon S3.

  1. A company’s database is hosted on an Amazon Aurora MySQL DB cluster in the us-east-1 Region. The database is 4 TB in size. The company needs to expand its disaster recovery strategy to the us-west-2 Region. The company must have the ability to fail over to us-west-2 with a recovery time objective (RTO) of 15 minutes.
    What should a solutions architect recommend to meet these requirements?

A. Create a Multi-Region Aurora MySQL DB cluster in us-east-1 and use-west-2. Use an Amazon Route 53 health check to monitor us-east-1 and fail over to us- west-2 upon failure.
B. Take a snapshot of the DB cluster in us-east-1. Configure an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule that invokes an AWS Lambda function upon receipt of resource events. Configure the Lambda function to copy the snapshot to us-west-2 and restore the snapshot in us-west-2 when failure is detected.
C. Create an AWS CloudFormation script to create another Aurora MySQL DB cluster in us-west-2 in case of failure. Configure an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule that invokes an AWS Lambda function upon receipt of resource events. Configure the Lambda function to deploy the AWS CloudFormation stack in us-west-2 when failure is detected.
D. Recreate the database as an Aurora global database with the primary DB cluster in us-east-1 and a secondary DB cluster in us-west-2. Configure an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule that invokes an AWS Lambda function upon receipt of resource events. Configure the Lambda function to promote the DB cluster in us-west-2 when failure is detected.

  1. A company is using a centralized AWS account to store log data in various Amazon S3 buckets. A solutions architect needs to ensure that the data is encrypted at rest before the data is uploaded to the S3 buckets. The data also must be encrypted in transit. Which solution meets these requirements?

A. Use client-side encryption to encrypt the data that is being uploaded to the S3 buckets.
B. Use server-side encryption to encrypt the data that is being uploaded to the S3 buckets.
C. Create bucket policies that require the use of server-side encryption with S3 managed encryption keys (SSE-S3) for S3 uploads.
D. Enable the security option to encrypt the S3 buckets through the use of a default AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) key.

  1. A company wants to run its critical applications in containers to meet requirements for scalability and availability. The company prefers to focus on maintenance of the critical applications. The company does not want to be responsible for provisioning and managing the underlying infrastructure that runs the containerized workload. What should a solutions architect do to meet these requirements?

A. Use Amazon EC2 instances, and install Docker on the instances.
B. Use Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) on Amazon EC2 worker nodes.
C. Use Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) on AWS Fargate.
D. Use Amazon EC2 instances from an Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS)-optimized Amazon Machine Image (AMI).

  1. A company is designing a new application that runs in a VPC on Amazon EC2 instances. The application stores data in Amazon S3 and uses Amazon DynamoDB as its database. For compliance reasons, the company prohibits all traffic between the EC2 instances and other AWS services from passing over the public internet. What can a solutions architect do to meet this requirement?

A. Configure gateway VPC endpoints to Amazon S3 and DynamoDB.
B. Configure interface VPC endpoints to Amazon S3 and DynamoDB.
C. Configure a gateway VPC endpoint to Amazon S3. Configure an interface VPC endpoint to DynamoDB.
D. Configure a gateway VPC endpoint to DynamoDB. Configure an interface VPC endpoint to Amazon S3.

  1. A company’s security team requests that network traffic be captured in VPC Flow Logs. The logs will be frequently accessed for 90 days and then accessed intermittently. What should a solutions architect do to meet these requirements when configuring the logs?

A. Use Amazon CloudWatch as the target. Set the CloudWatch log group with an expiration of 90 days.
B. Use Amazon Kinesis as the target. Configure the Kinesis stream to always retain the logs for 90 days.
C. Use AWS CloudTrail as the target. Configure CloudTrail to save to an Amazon S3 bucket, and enable S3 Intelligent-Tiering.
D. Use Amazon S3 as the target. Enable an S3 Lifecycle policy to transition the logs to S3 StandardInfrequent Access (S3 Standard-IA) after 90 days.

  1. A company needs to provide its employees with secure access to confidential and sensitive files. The company wants to ensure that the files can be accessed only by authorized users. The files must be downloaded securely to the employees’ devices. The files are stored in an on-premises Windows file server. However, due to an increase in remote usage, the file server is running out of capacity. Which solution will meet these requirements?

A. Migrate the file server to an Amazon EC2 instance in a public subnet. Configure the security group to limit inbound traffic to the employees’ IP addresses.
B. Migrate the files to an Amazon FSx for Windows File Server file system. Integrate the Amazon FSx file system with the on-premises Active Directory. Configure AWS Client VPN.
C. Migrate the files to Amazon S3, and create a private VPC endpoint. Create a signed URL to allow download.
D. Migrate the files to Amazon S3, and create a public VPC endpoint. Allow employees to sign on with AWS Single Sign-On.

  1. A company hosts a multi-tier web application that uses an Amazon Aurora MySQL DB cluster for storage. The application tier is hosted on Amazon EC2 instances. The company’s IT security guidelines mandate that the database credentials be encrypted and rotated every 14 days. What should a solutions architect do to meet this requirement with the LEAST operational effort?

A. Create a new AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) encryption key. Use AWS Secrets Manager to create a new secret that uses the KMS key with the appropriate credentials. Associate the secret with the Aurora DB cluster. Configure a custom rotation period of 14 days.
B. Create two parameters in AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store: one for the user name as a string parameter and one that uses the SecureString type for the password. Select AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) encryption for the password parameter, and load these parameters in the application tier. Implement an AWS Lambda function that rotates the password every 14 days.
C. Store a file that contains the credentials in an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) encrypted Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) file system. Mount the EFS file system in all EC2 instances of the application tier. Restrict the access to the file on the file system so that the application can read the file and that only super users can modify the file. Implement an AWS Lambda function that rotates the key in Aurora every 14 days and writes new credentials into the file.
D. Store a file that contains the credentials in an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) encrypted Amazon S3 bucket that the application uses to load the credentials. Download the file to the application regularly to ensure that the correct credentials are used. Implement an AWS Lambda function that rotates the Aurora credentials every 14 days and uploads these credentials to the file in the S3 bucket.

  1. A company is building an application that consists of several microservices. The company has decided to use container technologies to deploy its software on AWS. The company needs a solution that minimizes the amount of ongoing effort for maintenance and scaling. The company cannot manage additional infrastructure. Which combination of actions should a solutions architect take to meet these requirements? (Choose two.)

A. Deploy an Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) cluster.
B. Deploy the Kubernetes control plane on Amazon EC2 instances that span multiple Availability Zones.
C. Deploy an Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) service with an Amazon EC2 launch type. Specify a desired task number level of greater than or equal to 2.
D. Deploy an Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) service with a Fargate launch type. Specify a desired task number level of greater than or equal to 2.
E. Deploy Kubernetes worker nodes on Amazon EC2 instances that span multiple Availability Zones. Create a deployment that specifies two or more replicas for each microservice.

  1. A company recently launched a new service that involves medical images. The company scans the images and sends them from its on-premises data center through an AWS Direct Connect connection to Amazon EC2 instances. After processing is complete, the images are stored in an Amazon S3 bucket. A company requirement states that the EC2 instances cannot be accessible through the internet. The EC2 instances run in a private subnet, which has a default route back to the on-premises data center for outbound internet access. Usage of the new service is increasing rapidly. A solutions architect must recommend a solution that meets the company’s requirements and reduces the Direct Connect charges. Which solution accomplishes these goals MOST cost-effectively?

A. Configure a VPC endpoint for Amazon S3. Add an entry to the private subnet’s route table for the S3 endpoint.
B. Configure a NAT gateway in a public subnet. Configure the private subnet’s route table to use the NAT gateway.
C. Configure Amazon S3 as a file system mount point on the EC2 instances. Access Amazon S3 through the mount.
D. Move the EC2 instances into a public subnet. Configure the public subnet route table to point to an internet gateway.

  1. A company is building an online multiplayer game. The game communicates by using UDP, and low latency between the client and the backend is important. The backend is hosted on Amazon EC2 instances that can be deployed to multiple AWS Regions to meet demand. The company needs the game to be highly available so that users around the world can access the game at all times. What should a solutions architect do to meet these requirements?

A. Deploy Amazon CloudFront to support the global traffic. Configure CloudFront with an origin group to allow access to EC2 instances in multiple Regions.
B. Deploy an Application Load Balancer in one Region to distribute traffic to EC2 instances in each Region that hosts the game’s backend instances.
C. Deploy Amazon CloudFront to support an origin access identity (OAI). Associate the OAI with EC2 instances in each Region to support global traffic.
D. Deploy a Network Load Balancer in each Region to distribute the traffic. Use AWS Global Accelerator to route traffic to the correct Regional endpoint.

  1. A company runs its two-tier ecommerce website on AWS. The web tier consists of a load balancer that sends traffic to Amazon EC2 instances. The database tier uses an Amazon RDS DB instance. The EC2 instances and the RDS DB instance should not be exposed to the public internet. The EC2 instances require internet access to complete payment processing of orders through a third party web service. The application must be highly available. Which combination of configuration options will meet these requirements? (Choose two.)

A. Use an Auto Scaling group to launch the EC2 instances in private subnets. Deploy an RDS MultiAZ DB instance in private subnets.
B. Configure a VPC with two private subnets and two NAT gateways across two Availability Zones. Deploy an Application Load Balancer in the private subnets.
C. Use an Auto Scaling group to launch the EC2 instances in public subnets across two Availability Zones. Deploy an RDS Multi-AZ DB instance in private subnets.
D. Configure a VPC with one public subnet, one private subnet, and two NAT gateways across two Availability Zones. Deploy an Application Load Balancer in the public subnet.
E. Configure a VPC with two public subnets, two private subnets, and two NAT gateways across two Availability Zones. Deploy an Application Load Balancer in the public subnets.

  1. A security team needs to enforce the rotation of all IAM users’ access keys every 90 days. If an access key is found to be older, the key must be made inactive and removed. A solutions architect must create a solution that will check for and remediate any keys older than 90 days. Which solution meets these requirements with the LEAST operational effort?

A. Create an AWS Config rule to check for the key age. Configure the AWS Config rule to run an AWS Batch job to remove the key.
B. Create an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule to check for the key age. Configure the rule to run an AWS Batch job to remove the key.
C. Create an AWS Config rule to check for the key age. Define an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule to schedule an AWS Lambda function to remove the key.
D. Create an Amazon EventBridge (Amazon CloudWatch Events) rule to check for the key age. Define an EventBridge (CloudWatch Events) rule to run an AWS Batch job to remove the key.

  1. A solutions architect must provide an automated solution for a company’s compliance policy that states security groups cannot include a rule that allows SSH from 0.0.0.0/0. The company needs to be notified if there is any breach in the policy. A solution is needed as soon as possible. What should the solutions architect do to meet these requirements with the LEAST operational overhead?

A. Write an AWS Lambda script that monitors security groups for SSH being open to 0.0.0.0/0 addresses and creates a notification every time it finds one.
B. Enable the restricted-ssh AWS Config managed rule and generate an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) notification when a noncompliant rule is created.
C. Create an IAM role with permissions to globally open security groups and network ACLs. Create an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic to generate a notification every time the role is assumed by a user.
D. Configure a service control policy (SCP) that prevents non-administrative users from creating or editing security groups. Create a notification in the ticketing system when a user requests a rule that needs administrator permissions.

  1. A media company is using two video conversion tools that run on Amazon EC2 instances. One tool runs on Windows instances, and the other tool runs on Linux instances. Each video file is large in size and must be processed by both tools. The company needs a storage solution that can provide a centralized file system that can be mounted on all the EC2 instances that are used in this process. Which solution meets these requirements?

A. Use Amazon FSx for Windows File Server for the Windows instances. Use Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) with Max I/O performance mode for the Linux instances.
B. Use Amazon FSx for Windows File Server for the Windows instances. Use Amazon FSx for Lustre for the Linux instances. Link both Amazon FSx file systems to the same Amazon S3 bucket.
C. Use Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) with General Purpose performance mode for the Windows instances and the Linux instances
D. Use Amazon FSx for Windows File Server for the Windows instances and the Linux instances.

  1. A company operates a two-tier application for image processing. The application uses two Availability Zones, each with one public subnet and one private subnet. An Application Load Balancer (ALB) for the web tier uses the public subnets. Amazon EC2 instances for the application tier use the private subnets. Users report that the application is running more slowly than expected. A security audit of the web server log files shows that the application is receiving millions of illegitimate requests from a small number of IP addresses. A solutions architect needs to resolve the immediate performance problem while the company investigates a more permanent solution. What should the solutions architect recommend to meet this requirement?

A. Modify the inbound security group for the web tier. Add a deny rule for the IP addresses that are consuming resources.
B. Modify the network ACL for the web tier subnets. Add an inbound deny rule for the IP addresses that are consuming resources.
C. Modify the inbound security group for the application tier. Add a deny rule for the IP addresses that are consuming resources.
D. Modify the network ACL for the application tier subnets. Add an inbound deny rule for the IP addresses that are consuming resources.

  1. A company is planning to migrate a TCP-based application into the company’s VPC. The application is publicly accessible on a nonstandard TCP port through a hardware appliance in the company’s data center. This public endpoint can process up to 3 million requests per second with low latency. The company requires the same level of performance for the new public endpoint in AWS. What should a solutions architect recommend to meet this requirement?

A. Deploy a Network Load Balancer (NLB). Configure the NLB to be publicly accessible over the TCP port that the application requires.
B. Deploy an Application Load Balancer (ALB). Configure the ALB to be publicly accessible over the TCP port that the application requires.
C. Deploy an Amazon CloudFront distribution that listens on the TCP port that the application requires. Use an Application Load Balancer as the origin.
D. Deploy an Amazon API Gateway API that is configured with the TCP port that the application requires. Configure AWS Lambda functions with provisioned concurrency to process the requests.

  1. An ecommerce company is creating an application that requires a connection to a third-party payment service to process payments. The payment service needs to explicitly allow the public IP address of the server that is making the payment request. However, the company’s security policies do not allow any server to be exposed directly to the public internet. Which solution will meet these requirements?

A. Provision an Elastic IP address. Host the application servers on Amazon EC2 instances in a private subnet. Assign the public IP address to the application servers.
B. Create a NAT gateway in a public subnet. Host the application servers on Amazon EC2 instances in a private subnet. Route payment requests through the NAT gateway.
C. Deploy an Application Load Balancer (ALB). Host the application servers on Amazon EC2 instances in a private subnet. Route the payment requests through the ALB.
D. Set up an AWS Client VPN connection to the payment service. Host the application servers on Amazon EC2 instances in a private subnet. Route the payment requests through the VPN.

  1. A company is running an ASP.NET MVC application on a single Amazon EC2 instance. A recent increase in application traffic is causing slow response times for users during lunch hours. The company needs to resolve this concern with the least amount of configuration. What should a solutions architect recommend to meet these requirements?

A. Move the application to AWS Elastic Beanstalk. Configure load-based auto scaling and time based scaling to handle scaling during lunch hours.
B. Move the application to Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS). Create an AWS Lambda function to handle scaling during lunch hours.
C. Move the application to Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS). Configure scheduled scaling for AWS Application Auto Scaling during lunch hours.
D. Move the application to AWS Elastic Beanstalk. Configure load-based auto scaling, and create an AWS Lambda function to handle scaling during lunch hours.

  1. An online gaming company is designing a game that is expected to be popular all over the world. A solutions architect needs to define an AWS Cloud architecture that supports near-real-time recording and displaying of current game statistics for each player, along with the names of the top 25 players in the world, at any given time. Which AWS database solution and configuration should the solutions architect use to meet these requirements?

A. Use Amazon RDS for MySQL as the data store for player activity. Configure the RDS DB instance for Multi-AZ support.
B. Use Amazon DynamoDB as the data store for player activity. Configure DynamoDB Accelerator (DAX) for the player data.
C. Use Amazon DynamoDB as the data store for player activity. Configure global tables in each required AWS Region for the player data.
D. Use Amazon RDS for MySQL as the data store for player activity. Configure cross-Region read replicas in each required AWS Region based on player proximity.

  1. A company uses Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL databases for its data tier. The company must implement password rotation for the databases. Which solution meets this requirement with the LEAST operational overhead?

A. Store the password in AWS Secrets Manager. Enable automatic rotation on the secret.
B. Store the password in AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store. Enable automatic rotation on the parameter.
C. Store the password in AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store. Write an AWS Lambda function that rotates the password.
D. Store the password in AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS). Enable automatic rotation on the customer master key (CMK).

  1. A company’s facility has badge readers at every entrance throughout the building. When badges are scanned, the readers send a message over HTTPS to indicate who attempted to access that particular entrance.A solutions architect must design a system to process these messages from the sensors. The solution must be highly available, and the results must be made available for the company’s security team to analyze. Which system architecture should the solutions architect recommend?

A. Launch an Amazon EC2 instance to serve as the HTTPS endpoint and to process the messages. Configure the EC2 instance to save the results to an Amazon S3 bucket.
B. Create an HTTPS endpoint in Amazon API Gateway. Configure the API Gateway endpoint to invoke an AWS Lambda function to process the messages and save the results to an Amazon DynamoDB table.
C. Use Amazon Route 53 to direct incoming sensor messages to an AWS Lambda function. Configure the Lambda function to process the messages and save the results to an Amazon DynamoDB table.
D. Create a gateway VPC endpoint for Amazon S3. Configure a Site-to-Site VPN connection from the facility network to the VPC so that sensor data can be written directly to an S3 bucket by way of the VPC endpoint.

  1. An Amazon EC2 instance is located in a private subnet in a new VPC. This subnet does not have outbound internet access, but the EC2 instance needs the ability to download monthly security updates from an outside vendor. What should a solutions architect do to meet these requirements?

A. Create an internet gateway, and attach it to the VPC. Configure the private subnet route table to use the internet gateway as the default route.
B. Create a NAT gateway, and place it in a public subnet. Configure the private subnet route table to use the NAT gateway as the default route.
C. Create a NAT instance, and place it in the same subnet where the EC2 instance is located. Configure the private subnet route table to use the NAT instance as the default route.
D. Create an internet gateway, and attach it to the VPC. Create a NAT instance, and place it in the same subnet where the EC2 instance is located. Configure the private subnet route table to use the internet gateway as the default route.

  1. A company has been running a web application with an Oracle relational database in an on premises data center for the past 15 years. The company must migrate the database to AWS. The company needs to reduce operational overhead without having to modify the application’s code. Which solution meets these requirements?

A. Use AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS) to migrate the database servers to Amazon RDS.
B. Use Amazon EC2 instances to migrate and operate the database servers.
C. Use AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS) to migrate the database servers to Amazon DynamoDB.
D. Use an AWS Snowball Edge Storage Optimized device to migrate the data from Oracle to Amazon Aurora.

  1. A company is running an application on Amazon EC2 instances. Traffic to the workload increases substantially during business hours and decreases afterward. The CPU utilization of an EC2 instance is a strong indicator of end-user demand on the application. The company has configured an Auto Scaling group to have a minimum group size of 2 EC2 instances and a maximum group size of 10 EC2 instances. The company is concerned that the current scaling policy that is associated with the Auto Scaling group might not be correct. The company must avoid over-provisioning EC2 instances and incurring unnecessary costs. What should a solutions architect recommend to meet these requirements?

A. Configure Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling to use a scheduled scaling plan and launch an additional 8 EC2 instances during business hours.
B. Configure AWS Auto Scaling to use a scaling plan that enables predictive scaling. Configure predictive scaling with a scaling mode of forecast and scale, and to enforce the maximum capacity setting during scaling.
C. Configure a step scaling policy to add 4 EC2 instances at 50% CPU utilization and add another 4 EC2 instances at 90% CPU utilization. Configure scale-in policies to perform the reverse and remove EC2 instances based on the two values.
D. Configure AWS Auto Scaling to have a desired capacity of 5 EC2 instances, and disable any existing scaling policies. Monitor the CPU utilization metric for 1 week. Then create dynamic scaling policies that are based on the observed values.

  1. A company runs a web application that is backed by Amazon RDS. A new database administrator caused data loss by accidentally editing information in a database table. To help recover from this type of incident, the company wants the ability to restore the database to its state from 5 minutes before any change within the last 30 days. Which feature should the solutions architect include in the design to meet this requirement?

A. Read replicas
B. Manual snapshots
C. Automated backups
D. Multi-AZ deployments